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id="Lab_BrowseCount"></span></div> </div> </div> <div class="null"></div> <div class="B1_01"> <span class="TDContent"><span id="Lab_Content"><section class="" data-support="96编辑? data-style-id="24347" data-color="rgb(134, 182, 209)" data-mpa-powered-by="yiban.io" style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: -apple-system-font, BlinkMacSystemFont, "Helvetica Neue", "PingFang SC", "Hiragino Sans GB", "Microsoft YaHei UI", "Microsoft YaHei", Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 17px; letter-spacing: 0.544px; text-align: justify; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255); box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><section style="margin: 10px 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><section style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word 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<a href="//www.hiaq.net/">vsŦױ</a> www.hiaq.net <span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; font-size: 16px; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;">版权声明:本文根据原建设部副部长宋春华在2019第三届中国勘察设计行业创新发展高峰论坛的主题演讲摘编整理,刊登于《中国勘察设计》杂?019?月刊,版权为《中国勘察设计》杂志社及作者所有,欢迎转载,转载请注明作者及出处?/span><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; font-size: 16px; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"></span></p></section></section></section></section></section><p><section class="" style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: -apple-system-font, BlinkMacSystemFont, "Helvetica Neue", "PingFang SC", "Hiragino Sans GB", "Microsoft YaHei UI", "Microsoft YaHei", Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 17px; letter-spacing: 0.544px; text-align: justify; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255); box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><p style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><br style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"/></p></section><section class="" data-support="96编辑? data-style-id="16295" style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: -apple-system-font, BlinkMacSystemFont, "Helvetica Neue", "PingFang SC", "Hiragino Sans GB", "Microsoft YaHei UI", "Microsoft YaHei", Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 17px; letter-spacing: 0.544px; text-align: justify; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255); box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><section data-width="100%" style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; width: 574.286px; transform: rotate(0deg); overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><section style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; width: 50px; height: 4px; background-color: rgb(247, 202, 201); overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"></section></section><section style="margin: -4px 0px 0px; padding: 10px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; background-color: rgb(247, 202, 201); background-image: url("https://mmbiz.qpic.cn/mmbiz_png/Ljib4So7yuWgIqakRztgrq7YVkHgwCpBqlFNF3ia1qpHibtU1FSxwOHW7lCVHXbWHjMhN3FOFuUMvJLVTrCCiaIicWw/640?wx_fmt=png"); background-position: 59.2317% 19.837%; background-repeat: repeat; background-size: 124.683%; background-attachment: scroll; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><section style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><section style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; letter-spacing: 1px; line-height: 1.8; color: rgb(160, 160, 160); font-size: 14px; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><p style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; line-height: 2em; text-align: center; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; font-size: 18px; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><strong style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); overflow-wrap: break-word !important;">坚持设计创新 </span></strong></span></p><p style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; line-height: 2em; text-align: center; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; font-size: 18px; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><strong style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); overflow-wrap: break-word !important;">引领城乡建设高质量发?/span></strong></span></p><p style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><br style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"/></p><p style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; line-height: 2em; text-align: center; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; font-size: 16px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); overflow-wrap: break-word !important;">原建设部副部?宋春?/span></p><p style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; line-height: 2em; text-align: center; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><br style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"/></p><p style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; line-height: 2em; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; font-size: 16px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); overflow-wrap: break-word !important;">党的十九大报告指?:“中国特色社会主义进入新时代,我国经济已由高速增长阶段转向高质量发展阶段,我国社会的主要矛盾已转化为人民日益增长的对美好生活需要和不平衡不充分的发展之间的矛盾。”这期间,我们需要解决的问题还很多,例如,提高生产效率和效益 ;提高产品品质和质量 ;提高创新能力,加快新旧动能转化 ;推进供给侧结构改革,加快传统产业升?;加强生态文明建设,改善环境质量 ;补齐民生短板,增强群众获得感、幸福感等。我们的任务非常繁重,城乡建设和人居环境也必须对标高质量发展,这涉及到未来中国城市的形态和结构、城市的提质与乡村振兴等诸多方面,都要以自己的高质量去服务于新时期的新发展?/span></p><p style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; line-height: 2em; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><br style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"/></p><p style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; line-height: 2em; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; font-size: 16px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); overflow-wrap: break-word !important;">城乡建设的高质量发展,需要设计的积极引领。无论是规划设计、城市设计,还是建筑设计、风景园林设计,都肩负着重要的使命和责任,都必须坚持创新,以新的理念和方法,大胆实践。在新时代下有很多新的形势、新的特点,我们必须把握好一些新的要点,才能实现高质量发展。下面,我将?8个方面来进行阐述?nbsp;</span></p><p style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><br style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"/></p><p style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; line-height: 2em; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; color: rgb(217, 33, 66); overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><strong style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; font-size: 16px; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;">第一,以城市群为主体形态,推动区域协调发展 </span></strong></span><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; font-size: 16px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"></span></p><p style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; line-height: 2em; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><br style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"/></p><p style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; line-height: 2em; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; font-size: 16px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); overflow-wrap: break-word !important;">快速发展的现代交通和通讯网络,可以快速高效地将一定地域内的城市拉近,用时间效率去换取空间集聚,这样既解决了某些超级城市恶性膨胀所带来的“城市病”,又形成了更大范围和规模的集聚效应,成为一种新的城市发展形态,这就是城市群?nbsp;</span></p><p style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; line-height: 2em; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; font-size: 16px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); overflow-wrap: break-word !important;">城市群是指在特定的区域内,以若干个特大城市和大城市为核心,依托发达的交通、通讯等基础设施网络集聚而成?一种多层次的城镇集合,是经济联系密切、各种要素集聚度高、扩散能力强、空间组织紧凑,最终实现高度同城化和一体化的城市群体。因此,大家要树立城市群这样一个概念,不能老局限在原来的大城市和特大城市里。城市群是现代经济发展的重要方式之一,是一个国家和地区参与国际分工和全球竞争的地域单元,也是城</span><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-size: 16px; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;">镇化高级阶段的主要形态。学习和借鉴世界级的著名城市群建设和发展经验,对于我国城市群发展具有重要的借鉴意义?nbsp;</span></p><p style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; line-height: 2em; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; font-size: 16px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); overflow-wrap: break-word !important;">纵观世界上几大著名城市群,如纽约城市群(湾区)、旧金山城市群(湾区)、伦敦城市群、东京城市群(湾区)等,从地域、人口、城市、经济等方面统计分析可以看出,世界级城市群的共同特征 :一是有优越的区位和良好的自然条?;二是以一个或几个区域性中心城市为核心 ;三是准确的产业定位和紧密的产业协作体系 ;四是发达的基础设施,便捷的交通、通讯网络 ;五是统筹协调的治理机制,主要手段是做好规划。目前,我国已对城市群建设作出了全面安排,即“以城市群为主体形态”,按照“两横三纵”的城镇战略布局,共规划?19个城市群和两个城市圈。我国城市群建设尚处在起步阶段,如何发挥好城市群作为主体形态的功能和作用,还需要我们在实践中不断探索和创新,在借鉴国外的做法和经验的同时,关键是要做好我们自己的工作。所以,我觉得城市群建设要把握好以下几点?nbsp;</span></p><p style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; line-height: 2em; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; font-size: 16px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); overflow-wrap: break-word !important;">一是在区域协调方面,要以积极的规划设计引领,保证城市群建设有序推进。最重要的就是要做好城市群的“规划纲要”,要对城市群作出科学的定位,并对规划范围、人口规模、建设目标、空间布局、生态标准、产业体系、基础设施配置、公共服务能力建设等作出整体性战略部署和安排。目前,我国几个大的城市群,包括大湾区,正在陆续出台规划纲要?nbsp;</span></p><p style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; line-height: 2em; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; font-size: 16px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); overflow-wrap: break-word !important;">二是在内生动力方面,要依靠集聚优秀人才,实施创新驱动。内生动力是创新,而不是过多的投入资源。我们必须以特殊的政策,集聚高端创新人才和优质创新要素,培养创新文化,搭建创新平台,建立起以企业为主体、市场为导向、产学研深度融合的科技创新体系,尽快实现从“世界工厂”向创新高地的转换,从而实现高质量发展?nbsp;</span></p><p style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; line-height: 2em; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; font-size: 16px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); overflow-wrap: break-word !important;">三是在基础设施方面,要建立高效的互联互通,实现要素的高效流动。要充分整合区位优势和发达的基础设施条件,构建起包括空港、海港、高铁、城铁、地铁、跨海大桥等设施在内的立体化快速交通体系。最典型的就是港珠澳大桥,建成通车后,开车从香港到珠海的时间由之前的3个多小时缩减为半个多小时,实现了三地的互联互通?nbsp;</span></p><p style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; line-height: 2em; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; font-size: 16px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); overflow-wrap: break-word !important;">四是在生态环境建设方面,要践行绿色发展理念,倡导低碳生产、生活模式,营造高品质的生态环境。在这个方面需要把握几个重?:要制定更高的环境标准,建立环境保护负面清单;加快生态修复,扩大生态空间,提高碳汇能力 ;提高“蓝绿”比例,扩大绿水青山范围 ;优化能源结构,广泛利用可再生清洁能?;降低能耗指标,严格控制排放标准,推广低能耗建筑,建立全生命周期的绿色考核制度,包括绿色建材、绿色建造、绿色运维、绿色更新、绿色处?;依靠科技进步,破解垃圾、污水、废弃物深度无害化处理和回收利用问题 ;倡导绿色文明新风尚,鼓励低碳出行,提倡简约适度的绿色消费?nbsp;</span></p><p style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; line-height: 2em; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; font-size: 16px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); overflow-wrap: break-word !important;">五是在人居环境方面,要按照人们对美好生活的需求,营造美丽宜居的生活圈。中国有句老话叫“近者悦远者来”,就是说在这里生活的人们感觉到生活的美好了,才能吸引外部的人进来。所以,我们的城市群应该建立起基本的社会保障体系,提供优质的公共服务,让人们无后顾之忧?nbsp;</span></p><p style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; line-height: 2em; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; font-size: 16px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); overflow-wrap: break-word !important;">六是在文化建设方面,要重视文化的巨大作用,把文化作为核心竞争力的重要方面,通过建设“文化型城市群”,提升城市群的软实力。城市群不仅仅是一个经济空间,更是一个文化空间。通过建设“文化型城市群”,可以更好地实现城市群的融合发展,其核心的文化精神不但对人才具有巨大的吸引力,而且也是打造文化共同体的必要条件?nbsp;</span></p><p style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; line-height: 2em; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; font-size: 16px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); overflow-wrap: break-word !important;">七是在城市群管理方面,要利用自身的优势,建立智能化的治理体系,打造数字化的城市区</span><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-size: 16px; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;">域?/span><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-size: 16px; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;">通过智能化、数字化对城市群里的城市进行治理,包括金融、能源、交通、物流、安全等方面实现全域服务、精准监测,及时发现问题,高效处理有关政务和日常的城市管理,实现城市信息资源的整合与共享,构建起智能城市治理体系?/span><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-size: 16px; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"> </span></p><p style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; line-height: 2em; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><br style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"/></p><p style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; line-height: 2em; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><strong style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; font-size: 16px; color: rgb(217, 33, 66); overflow-wrap: break-word !important;">第二,在城市中建设城市,从外延扩张转向内涵增?nbsp;</span></strong><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; font-size: 16px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"></span></p><p style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; line-height: 2em; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><br style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"/></p><p style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; line-height: 2em; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; font-size: 16px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); overflow-wrap: break-word !important;">在城市中建设城市好像是一句大白话,其实不然。我们并没有在城市中建设城市,我们现在是跑到农村去建</span><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-size: 16px; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;">设城市。那么多小产权房不就是到农村去建的吗?还有到风景区、森林里、水域边去建设城市。所以,在城市中建设城市,看起来是一句平常话,但是它很有意义。中央已经明确要求,要设立生态保护、永久基本农田和城市开发三条控制红线。这三条红线就是要解决建城区土地利用效率低下的问题,就是要在城市中建设城市。那么,与原来的增量发展相比,现在应该说是转入到一种存量发展或者说是一种减量的发展。但减量发展不是不发展,而是要高质量地发?;不是不占用土地,而是要严格控制新增建设用地。所以,首先要挖掘存量土地资源,还可以通过清理一些违章违法建设用地,还原合理用地。此外,还要统筹地上地下空间,开拓地下空间资源。特别要重视地下空间的开发。现在,国际上很多国家都很重视地下空间的开发问题,例如新加坡,它原来依靠填海大概拿到了100平方公里左右的建设用地,但不能一直依靠填海来扩大建设面积,否则生态就会出现问题。因此,新加坡现在转向了地下开发利用。另外,温哥华、东京等城市,包括我国的广州新城、成都太古里,都进行了地下空间的开发利用,未来这会是一个巨大的空间资源?nbsp;</span></p><p style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; line-height: 2em; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><br style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"/></p><p style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; line-height: 2em; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><strong style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; font-size: 16px; color: rgb(217, 33, 66); overflow-wrap: break-word !important;">第三,让财富积累起来,让存量资产提质增?/span></strong><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; font-size: 16px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"></span></p><p style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; line-height: 2em; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><br style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important;"/></p><p style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; line-height: 2em; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; font-size: 16px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); overflow-wrap: break-word !important;">新时代下,城市不能再像原来那么扩张,要在边界线内去发展,也就是要按照“严控增量、盘活存量、优化结构”的思路,在生态修复的同时,有效、有序地实施城市修补和有机更新,解决老城区品质下降、空间秩序混乱?历史文化遗产损毁等问题。要盘活存量,有机更新城市,做好城市修补,通过维护加固老建筑、改造利用旧厂房、完善基础设施等措施,恢复老城区的功能活力。城市修补更新、老建筑改造利用,关键是要做好城市设计和建?/span><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-size: 16px; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;">方案设计。这是建筑设计的一个重要领域,而且与新新建筑相比,设计的难度更大,需要解决的问题更为复杂。在这个领域里,对于建筑创新,建筑师 肩负着重要的使命,而且也将大有作为。世界上很多著名的建筑师,在老建筑的更新改造方面都投入了很大的精力,而且做成了一些很好的精典项目。例如,巴塞罗那核心区的一个斗牛场,由世界级建筑大师罗杰斯设计改造,他把整个斗牛场托起来,加上一个盖?地下重新改造成了四五层的大型商?Mall,如?1、图2所示。另一个就是日本建筑大师安藤忠雄的旧城改造项目,如图 3所示,他将巴黎的一个商品交易所改造成为一个美术馆。我认为,城市更新最主要包括三大版块 :一是历史街区与建筑遗存的传承和活化 ;二是老旧居住区的改造提?;三是工业区及工业建筑遗产保护和利用?/span></p><p style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; line-height: 2em; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><br style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"/></p><p style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; text-align: center; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><img src="/upload/Info/images/20190823/6370217794810470216748418.jpg" title="微信图片_20190823172528.jpg" alt="微信图片_20190823172528.jpg"/><img src="/upload/Info/images/20190823/6370217796210470216338006.jpg" title="微信图片_20190823172532.jpg" alt="微信图片_20190823172532.jpg"/></p><p style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; line-height: 2em; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; font-size: 16px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); overflow-wrap: break-word !important;">首先,关于历史街区及建筑遗存的传承活化问题。历史街区是弥足珍贵的文化遗产,也是城市风貌的特色所在,可惜我们以前拆了很多,包括北京的四合院。这些老城区,在城市更新和老旧建筑改造中,首先要做好保护,保护好它的规划格局、空间序列、改造尺度、城市肌理、建筑形式和风格色彩等,要坚持整体性保护的原则和尽量保留原来的社会生态,从而更好地延续城市文脉,保留乡愁记忆,彰显特色风貌。在这个前提下,我们进行修补?/span><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-size: 16px; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;">改造、提质、活化,使之融入现代社会,服务于当代人的生产生活?/span><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-size: 16px; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;">(图4?nbsp;</span></p><p style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; line-height: 2em; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><br style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"/></p><p style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; text-align: center; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><img src="/upload/Info/images/20190823/6370217799920626464939447.jpg" title="微信图片_20190823172613.jpg" alt="微信图片_20190823172613.jpg"/></p><p style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; line-height: 2em; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; font-size: 16px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"></span></p><p style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; line-height: 2em; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; font-size: 16px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); overflow-wrap: break-word !important;">其次,关于老旧居住区的改造提升问题。根据住建部统计的最新数据,全国?17万个城镇老旧小区待改造,量很大。而老旧小区的显著特征是“双老”——设备、建筑老旧化和人口老龄化。关于老旧小区的改造,有以下几个观?:一是坚持成街区、片区改造,全面提升住区质量 ;二是重点解决交通问题,动静态交通要统筹安排 ;三是地上地下空间统筹考虑,综合开发利?;四是摒弃大拆大建,保护好历史风貌和时代特征 ;五是进行建筑节能改造,采用较高节能标准 ;六是开辟更多的公共空间,满足居民日常活动需?;七是采取适老化措施,重</span><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-size: 16px; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;">点解决无障碍通行?nbsp;</span></p><p style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; line-height: 2em; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; font-size: 16px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); overflow-wrap: break-word !important;">最后,关于工业区和工业遗产保护与利用问题。工业区占地面积大,很多城市工业用地都在30% 左右,甚至有的工业区还高于这个比例。工业区占地大,建筑坚固、体量大、跨度大、专业性强,那些停产闲置的工业建筑和设备,使城市出现了工业锈地。所以,工业用地保护和利用的量很大。工业遗产保护利用工作,应当发挥遗产所有权人的主体作用,坚持政府引导、社会参与、保护优先、合理利用、动态传承、可持续发展的原则。工业遗产的利用,首先要做好规划,充分听取公众的意见,科学决策,传承工业文明。工业遗产可以做成多种形式,可以建博物馆,可以搞旅游项目、文化园区、特色小镇(街区)、创意创业基地等,培育工业设计、工业美术、工业创意等业态。在这方面,我认为做得比较好的一个例子就是首钢。作为一个大型钢铁企业,首钢搬走后,大量的工业设备进行了一些改造。几个大筒仓改成了写字楼,成了冬奥会组委会的办公基地(图 5);一些公共空间进行了开拓,保留了原来的火车?;矿渣回收车间被全国勘察设计大师李兴钢做成了智选假日酒店,回收矿渣的转炉里边还开辟了一个咖啡厅。所以说 , 工业遗产的利用大有文章可做?nbsp;</span></p><p style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><br style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"/></p><p style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; text-align: center; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><img src="/upload/Info/images/20190823/6370217801236251465186348.jpg" title="微信图片_20190823172619.jpg" alt="微信图片_20190823172619.jpg"/></p><p style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><br style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"/></p><p style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; line-height: 2em; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; color: rgb(217, 33, 66); overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><strong style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; font-size: 16px; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;">第四,补短板,惠民生,让群众获得高品质的生活 </span></strong></span><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; font-size: 16px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"></span></p><p style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; line-height: 2em; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><br style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"/></p><p style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; line-height: 2em; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; font-size: 16px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); overflow-wrap: break-word !important;">这是一个新课题、新任务。民生问题,涉及到住建行业的最主要的是住房、交通、居家养老和?/span><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-size: 16px; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;">闲公共空间。关于住房问题。据统计,截止到 2017年底,我国城市人均居住面积已达到 36.9平方?/ 人,农村 46.7平方?/ 人(?1),平均面积超过?40平方?/ 人,已接近发达国家的人均居住面积水平?/span></p><p style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; line-height: 2em; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><br style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"/></p><p style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; text-align: center; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><img src="/upload/Info/images/20190823/6370217802066720214481079.jpg" title="微信图片_20190823172623.jpg" alt="微信图片_20190823172623.jpg"/></p><p style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; line-height: 2em; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; font-size: 16px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"></span></p><p style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; line-height: 2em; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; font-size: 16px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); overflow-wrap: break-word !important;">在这种情况下,我们的住房设计理念应该是什么?就是要倡导绿色的消费观 :简约适度,绿色低碳。中国的住房应以中小套型为主,建筑师要在中小套型上下功夫,力求做到中小套型高舒适度,同时做好社区配套,以“小户大家”的模式,让群众感到舒适、方便、惬意。香港的住房设计就是小户大家,每户住房二三十平方米,但配套设施做得非常好,社区里应有尽有。然而,我们现在的设计,建筑面积是大,但是配套跟不上去,这是有问题的。香港的模式值得我们借鉴。关于交通问题。中小城市主要是靠发展公共交通和自行车等非机动车出行 ;大城市则要靠发展轨道交通来缓解出行难,而不是依赖私家车。在这方面,世界上很多国家做了很多有益的?/span><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-size: 16px; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;">索。例如,哥本哈根?56万人口,主要交通工具是自行车,35% 以上的人都骑自行车上下班 ;巴西的库里蒂巴也不?00万人,主要交通工具是公共交?;轨道交通解决最好的是日本东京,据统计,86% 的日本人依靠轨道交通来解决出行问题,而不是靠小汽车,如表2所示?/span></p><p style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; line-height: 2em; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><br style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"/></p><p style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; text-align: center; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><img src="/upload/Info/images/20190823/6370217802803438969232064.jpg" title="微信图片_20190823172626.jpg" alt="微信图片_20190823172626.jpg"/></p><p style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; line-height: 2em; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-size: 16px; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"></span></p><p style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; line-height: 2em; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; font-size: 16px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); overflow-wrap: break-word !important;">关于居家养老的问题。居家养老占 90%,所以要解决好普通住宅的智能化、适老化问题。由于普通住宅量大面广,迫切需要以产业化方式加以解决。关于公共活动空间问题。在规划和城市设计中,要多建一些小广场、口袋公园,便于群众利用,而不是搞那么多大广场。多建在家门口就能利用的小的公共空间是值得提倡的?nbsp;</span></p><p style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><br style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"/></p><p style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; line-height: 2em; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><strong style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; font-size: 16px; color: rgb(217, 33, 66); overflow-wrap: break-word !important;">第五,低碳是标配,绿色是底色,节能减排在路上</span></strong><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; font-size: 16px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"> </span></p><p style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; line-height: 2em; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><br style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"/></p><p style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; line-height: 2em; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; font-size: 16px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); overflow-wrap: break-word !important;">绿色的问题,我们一直在抓,新时期应该有新作为。我国已经向世界承诺 :将?030年左右使二氧化碳排放达到峰值,并争取尽早实现。为此,要从两个方面入手 :一是要节能减排 ;二是加强碳汇,增加绿量。我国现在能源的浪费依然很严重,如果按照美国的能源效率计算,我们可以创造相当于现在3倍多?GDP;如果按照英国、日本的能源效率计算,可以创造出相当于现?倍?倍的 GDP。这说明我们的能源消耗是过度的、是不经济的。比较几个发达国家和发展中国家工业、交通、建筑三大项占比可以看到,发达国家建筑能耗越来越高,发展中国家是工业能耗越来越高,而中国建筑类用能会越来越高,如图6所示,所以建筑节能势在必行?/span></p><p style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; line-height: 2em; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; font-size: 16px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); overflow-wrap: break-word !important;">早在 2017?1月, 国务院印发的《“十三五”节能减排综合试点工作方策》要?:“到 2020年城镇绿?/span><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-size: 16px; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;">建筑面积占新建建筑面积比重提高到 50%”。同?月,住建部印发的《“十三五”建筑节能与绿色建筑发展规划》明确提出,“到 2020年建?000万平方米超低(近零) 能耗建筑”。在这方面,欧盟和日本都已采取了强制性措施。欧盟决定,2020年欧?27个国家新建建筑将全部采用被动式建筑标准。日本也公布了零能耗住宅建设规?:到 2020年,半数以上新建建筑要达到零能耗住宅标?;到 2030年,所有新建建筑必须按照零能耗的标准进行建造。所以,我国提出的到 2020年在全国建成 1000万平方米超低(近零)能耗建筑,我觉得太少了。如果被动房建设速度太慢,建筑能耗还是太大。但因为被动房建设成本是微微有所增加的,所以好多开发商不愿意干。但 实际上增加的投入并不多,回收的期限也很短。所以,关键要有政策引导。例如,北京出台了优惠政策,“对超低能耗示范项目按申报年度分别给予每平方米 1000元(单项不超?3000万元)?00元(单项不超?2500万元)?00元(单项不超?2000万元)的奖励支持。各地政府要积极出台优惠政策,鼓励开发商去建设被动房,鼓励消费者去购买被动房,这样我们的建筑能耗才会大大降低。不仅是住宅,我们的办公楼、、酒店也可以搞零能耗,这是个新课题。对于难以避免的二氧化碳排放,还要提高碳汇能力进行吸附转换,必须增加绿量,搞好大地绿化,加强风景园林建设,这既是节能减排的重要措施,也是美丽中国的题中之义?/span></p><p style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; line-height: 2em; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><br style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"/></p><p style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; text-align: center; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><img src="/upload/Info/images/20190823/6370217803581563969154391.jpg" title="微信图片_20190823172629.jpg" alt="微信图片_20190823172629.jpg"/></p><p style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; line-height: 2em; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-size: 16px; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"></span></p><p style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; line-height: 2em; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><br style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"/></p><p style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; line-height: 2em; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><strong style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; font-size: 16px; color: rgb(217, 33, 66); overflow-wrap: break-word !important;">?/span></strong><strong style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; font-size: 16px; color: rgb(217, 33, 66); overflow-wrap: break-word !important;">六,以工业化、智能建造引 领建筑业优化升级,提高产品供给质?/span></strong></p><p style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; line-height: 2em; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; font-size: 16px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"></span></p><p style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; line-height: 2em; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><br style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"/></p><p style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; line-height: 2em; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; font-size: 16px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); overflow-wrap: break-word !important;">目前,建筑业存在的问题还比较多。例如,生产方式集约化程度低,尚未形成全产业链的工业化生产体系,缺乏完整的质量控制体系,部品、部件配套率、标准化率低,缺乏模数协调等问题。对此,国家也出台了很多顶层设计?015年,中央城市工作会议提出要”发展新型建造方式”;2016?9月,国办印发了《关于大力发展装配式建筑的指导意见》;2017?月,住建部印发了《“十三五”装配式建筑行动方案》,提出了两个目?:一是在 2020年装配式建筑占新建建筑面积达15% 以上 ;二是培?50个示范城市,200个以上产业基地,500个以上示范工程及30个以上科技创新基地。此外,国家还配套出台了相关技术标准,包括《装配式混凝土结构技术标准》《装配式钢结构技术标准》《装配式木结构建筑技术标准》《装配式建筑评价标准》等。我认为,发展装配式建筑要注意以下几?:一是从供给侧结构性改革的高度,牢牢抓住为社会提供高质量最终产品这个核心,有序推进装配式建筑的发展 ;二是要树立全装配的理念,推进装配式内装,提高装配建造的完成?;三是要结合建设体制改革,在装配式建筑中大力推进工程总承?;四是要坚持以人为本,集成先进技术,提高最终产品的品质与性能,让群众有更多的获得感、幸福感 ;五是坚持创新发展,在总结优化的基础上,实现标准的突破,加快建立健全中国装配式建筑标准体?;六是要因地制宜,科学规划,积极稳妥,有序推进,不要“一刀切”?nbsp;</span></p><p style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; line-height: 2em; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><br style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"/></p><p style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; line-height: 2em; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; color: rgb(217, 33, 66); overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><strong style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; font-size: 16px; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;">第七,培育特色小镇,助推乡村振兴,促进农村高质量发展 </span></strong></span><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; font-size: 16px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"></span></p><p style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; line-height: 2em; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><br style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"/></p><p style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; line-height: 2em; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; font-size: 16px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); overflow-wrap: break-word !important;">相对于城市而言,农村发展不充分、不平衡的问题更为突出。怎么办?唯一正确的选择就是在推进新型城镇化的同时,实施乡村振兴,实现城乡一体融合发展、共同繁荣,也就是选择特色小镇来突破。为什么要抓特色小镇?一是因为特色小镇在城乡发展空间格局上是城乡两大体系的一个契合点 ;二是特色小镇以特色产业和美丽宜居为主要特征,是产城融合的一个重要载?;三是特色小镇既具有城市集聚的特点,又具有乡村生态良好、守望山水的优势,是城乡之间要素双向流动的一个联结点 ;四是特色小镇可以是农村体制机制改革先行试点示范,不断挖掘提升资源价值、创新发展机制的一个示范点,也是乡村振兴的一个新的活力点 ;五是特色小镇立足乡土文明,吸取城市文明和外来文化优秀成果,在保护传承的基础上坚持创新,不断赋予时代内涵,是文化建设的亮点。所以,特色小镇建设,要突出特色、抓住重?:要找准产业定位,形成产业特?;做好前期工作,依靠规划设计引领 ;挖掘人文底蕴,塑造特色风貌,不要把特色小镇建的像城市一?;避免大拆大建、盲目造城 ?nbsp;</span><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-size: 16px; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;">坚守生态底线,实现绿色低碳 ;发展共同服务,提高综合服务能力 ;坚持市场主导,实现可持续发展?nbsp;</span></p><p style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><br style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"/></p><p style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; line-height: 2em; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><strong style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; font-size: 16px; color: rgb(217, 33, 66); overflow-wrap: break-word !important;">第八,坚持设计创新,提高设计质量,以精品奉献给新时代</span></strong><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; font-size: 16px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"></span></p><p style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; line-height: 2em; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><br style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important;"/></p><p style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; line-height: 2em; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; font-size: 16px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); overflow-wrap: break-word !important;">未来30年,我们确实应当尽我们之责任,为共和国留下更多的建筑精品和经典之作。新时代的建筑创作要坚持与时代同步,坚持把精品奉献给新时代,打造一批具有里程碑意义的标志性建筑和一批才华出众的建筑大师?nbsp;</span></p><p style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; line-height: 2em; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; font-size: 16px; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); overflow-wrap: break-word !important;">要实现这些目标,一要处理好守正与创新的关系。守正,不是守住传统不放,全盘复古、造假古董都是不可取的,适应不了新时代的发展要求。正确的选择是植根传统辩证地传承,有取舍、有扬弃,运用现代技术和手段进行创造性转化和创新性发展,让文化基因不变异,优秀的理念精髓能延续,同时又具有时代特征和当下时空感,这样就会产生属于“这一代”的精品。二要处理好本土与外来的关系。不同的文明都有其深厚的底蕴和独特的魅力,都值得尊重和珍惜。要通过互学互鉴、兼收并蓄,吸取本土之外的智慧和营养,从而使自己生机勃勃、绚丽多彩。在开放交流、互鉴融合的过程中,要提高我们的鉴别和筛选能力、整合和再生的技巧,做到博采众长,为我所用,以更宽广的视野和更高的参照体系,去攀登新的高峰。三要处理好本行与跨界的关系。现在的学科专业分类越分越细、越专,专有专的特长,窄了可?更深,但专业之间的渗透和融合就会被弱化,综合协调能力就可能降低。无论是城市还是建筑,都需要多专业的配合协同,统筹和协调十分重要。建筑师负责制对建筑师提出了更全面的要求,建筑师除建筑本行外,还应该跨入更多的领域,如城市规划设计、生态环境、园林景观、公共艺术等。建筑师还应具备多方面的文化素养和技能,尽可能广泛接触涉猎姊妹艺术,不仅是绘画和摄影,还包括音乐、雕塑等艺术门类,这对捕捉灵感、提高创作水平是大有裨益的。四要处理好实践与理论的关系。一个时代有一个时代的建筑,一个时代也有一个时代的建筑理论。建筑师通常偏重于实践,但容易忽略了理论。习近平主席指出,“这是一个需要理论而且一定能够产生理论的时代,这是一个需要思想而且一定能够产生思想的时代。”所以,建筑</span><span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; box-sizing: border-box !important; word-wrap: break-word !important; color: rgb(0, 0, 0); font-size: 16px; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;">设计作为一种创造性思维活动,应该意在笔先,要有理念引领和理论指导。特别是随着“一带一路”倡议的推进和中国建筑“走出去”步伐的加快,世界建筑界更加关注中国建筑师的发声,而中国建筑丰富的实践也亟须思考、整理和提高,以回应新时代高质量发展的新课题。实践是理论的基础,理论源自实践又能反作用于实践,没有理论指导的实践是盲目的、缺乏定力的。因此,学术团体要引导和组织会员单位开展理论研究和学术交流,这是协学会工作的重要方面,协学会刊物应成为建筑理论与学术交流的重要园地和理论创新的支撑平台。建筑院校应加强建筑历史和建筑理论的教学分量,科研院所应加大对专业研究人员、理论工作者的支持力度,让他们能够专心致志地搞好理论研究,而不是去创收。另外,执业建筑师要更多地结合自己的建筑实践,从理论高度概括自己的理论基本点,提炼关键词和标志性符号,建立起彰显中国建筑文化的主张和建筑创作理论体系,更好地引导中国建筑设计走向高质量发展的新时代?/span></p></section></section></section></section></p><p style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px; padding: 0px; max-width: 100%; clear: both; min-height: 1em; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: -apple-system-font, BlinkMacSystemFont, "Helvetica Neue", "PingFang SC", "Hiragino Sans GB", "Microsoft YaHei UI", "Microsoft YaHei", Arial, sans-serif; font-size: 17px; letter-spacing: 0.544px; white-space: normal; background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255); text-align: center; box-sizing: border-box !important; overflow-wrap: break-word !important;"><span style="margin: 0px; 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